1.2 Ancient Greek Philosophy: Introspection & Associationism
The Origins of Psychology
The discipline of psychology is relatively young. The human mind is not. So, were humans simply unconcerned with how their minds worked prior to the development of formal psychology in the 19th century? Of course not! The human mind has fascinated people for as long as we can tell. In fact, psychology as we know it actually descends from some of the earliest intellectual movements in Western history. For that, we have to balance on the edge of science, and of philosophy.
Ancient Greek Philosophy
The first structured examinations of the human mind were not strictly scientific. Why? Because science, as we understand it, wasn’t developed as a distinct discipline until the 17th century CE. European intellectual culture itself began much earlier, back around the 5th century BCE. In ancient Greece, all intellectual pursuits were studied holistically, as individual parts of greater human experiences. Thus, what we call science was originally part of philosophy, connected to Greek morality and systems of explaining existence. It was within these frameworks that the first attempts to systematically understand the human mind were made.
Socrates and Introspection
The studies of the human mind are almost as old as Greek philosophy itself, starting with Socrates, who died around 399 BCE. Socrates, often considered the founder of all Western philosophy, claimed that one of the oldest wisdoms in Greek thought was ”know thyself”. Know thyself. What does that mean?
Basically, Socrates’ mantra (originally attributed to the divine Oracle of Delphi) is meant to evoke a simple idea: truth must be found within. In an era when moral structures were first truly being defined, Socrates argued that moral truth had to come from examining one’s own sense of self and one’s own mind. In psychology today, conscious reflection on your own feelings and thoughts is known as introspection.
Introspection and Plato
Introspection is a fundamental concept in psychology. The devotion to self-reflection dates back to Socrates, but we get an even better understanding of its importance from his student, Plato. Everything we know about Socrates comes from the writings of Plato, who also wrote out his own theories. Plato focused heavily on understanding how humans are capable of knowing things, and specifically how they are capable of knowing the truth. He reasoned that if moral, scientific, and philosophical truths existed then they must be knowable, but how are we to know them? His answer: reason and logic.
To Plato, human purpose was defined by the human ability to consciously rationalize thought. This was what allowed humans to find the philosophical truths of the universe. Of course, this meant that like Socrates, Plato saw introspection as one of the most important activities in human existence. Conscious examination of one’s own thoughts and feelings was the foundation upon which all truths could be understood.
Associationism and Aristotle
Theories on the human mind did not stop with Plato. One of Plato’s most distinguished students, Aristotle, also tackled the subject. Aristotle was more concretely focused than Plato, looking for definitive answers to his questions. Plato had proposed that the human mind worked partly because of various components associated with each other and produced thoughts and memories. Aristotle, looking for clearer explanations, took the study further. He developed a concrete theory on how elements of the mind interact, called associationism.
Associationism describes the belief that various components of the mind associate with each other to allow conscious memory. Aristotle described this through four methods, or laws. First is the law of contiguity, which claims that things close to each other in space or time will associate with each other in your memory. If you drank a soda then ate a sandwich, your mind is likely to associate those events. Second is the law of frequency, which states that things will become more strongly associated if they occur together more often. The more often you have a soda and sandwich, the more strongly your mind will associate those events.
Third is the law of similarity, claiming that similar things will associate with each other. If you think of your favorite Italian restaurant, for example, other Italian restaurants are likely to come to mind. Finally is the law of contrast, in which opposites associate with each other. Seeing an apple may trigger memories of good apples.
In Aristotle’s theories, these laws let the mind recall memories in what he called the common sense. However, they also let the common sense understand the world around you. For example, if you see a dog, hear a dog, feel a dog, and maybe even smell the dog, your common sense is what forms those experiences into the conscious awareness of a dog. This is a more detailed exploration of how the mind works than Plato, and is really the first theory of cognitive sciences. Even within its philosophical framework, Aristotle’s theories were some of the world’s first works on psychology.
The human mind has fascinated people for millennia. While psychology as a unified discipline did not emerge until the 19th century, systematic attempts to understand the human mind actually date all the way back to ancient Greece. Socrates was amongst the first in explaining the mantra of the Oracle of Delphi, know thyself. Socrates explained that the ability to consciously reflect on one’s own thoughts, which we call introspection was the foundation of moral truth. His student, Plato built upon this in his assertion that human purpose was defined by rational introspection. Plato’s student, Aristotle, took a more defined look at how the mind functions. He claimed that the mind relied on associations between events and objects to understand or recall them, something we call associationism. While they were focused on philosophy, these three Greeks actually laid the foundation of modern psychology, showing us that curiosity about human thought has to be about as old as human thought itself.